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Engagement to Global Production Networks in Southeast Asia: Prospects for Technology Upgrade and Lessons for Latin America

Juan Felipe López Aymes, María Esther Morales Fajardo


Developing countries are under constant pressure to improve economic conditions and generate sources of employment. To achieve these goals, in the last few decades the mantra has been to engage in global production networks and carry out institutional reforms to attract foreign capital. However, the current set of ideas about globalization is dominated by the premise that economic institutions should aim to insert national economies (or sub-regions) into certain stages of production and specialization (Baldwin, 2012, 2013; Gereffi & Sturgeon, 2013; World Trade Organization, 2011). Developing countries are often targeted at the extractive and labor intensive stages, thus influencing the reforms to become as functional nodes of the global capitalist network. This article argues that any institutional reformulation must contemplate a two-track strategy instead of a single one. This is, the economy must be re- structured to attract foreign direct investment, but it must also seek to develop domestic capacities independently not only engage local capital, preferably in high value-added stages, but also to socially master as many phases of the production process as possible. Thus, it is suggested to reconsider an updated developmental industrial policy as the guiding thread of economic policy.


Participación en las redes globales de producción en el sureste de Asia: Prospectos para mejoramiento tecnológico y lecciones para América Latina

Los países en desarrollo están bajo una constante presión para mejorar las condiciones económicas y generar fuentes de empleo. Para alcanzar estas metas, en las últimas décadas el mantra ha sido captar las redes globales de producción y llevar a cabo reformas institucionales para atraer capital extranjero. Sin embargo, el conjunto actual de ideas sobre la globalización es dominado por la premisa de que las instituciones económicas deben apuntar hacia la inserción de economías nacionales (o subregiones) en ciertas etapas de la producción y especializarse (Baldwin, 2012, 2013; Gereffi y Sturgeon, 2013; World Trade Organization, 2011). Los países en desarrollo son frecuentemente seleccionados para las etapas extractivas e intensivas en trabajo, influyendo así las reformas para convertirse en nodos funcionales de la red capitalista global. En este artículo se sostiene el argumento de que cualquier reformulación institucional debe considerar una estrategia dual en lugar de una estrategia singular. Esto es, la economía debe ser reestructurada para atraer inversión extranjera directa, pero también debe buscar desarrollar capacidades domésticas de manera independiente no sólo para integrar al capital local, preferentemente en etapas de alto valor agregado, sino dominar socialmente tantas fases de la producción como sea posible. Para ello, se sugiere reconsiderar la pertinencia de un enfoque actualizado de política industrial desarrollista como hilo conductor de la política económica

Palabras clave

globalización, redes globales de valor, Asia, América Latina, desarrollo tecnológico

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